- Age-appropriate expectations
- Limits accompanied by empathy
Children who are raised this way don't need much in the way of discipline at all, and they become self-disciplined adults.
However, children who are spanked are more likely to exhibit:
- Drug use
- Aggression as they get older
The only positive outcome that's ever been shown from spanking is immediate compliance; however, corporal punishment is associated with long-term compliance.
Corporal punishment has repeatedly been linked with nine other negative outcomes including:
- Increased rates of aggression
- Mental health problems
- Problems in relationships with their parents
Large, peer-reviewed studies repeatedly show that the more children are hit, the more likely they are to hit others, including peers and siblings. As adults, they are more likely to hit their spouses. The more parents spank children for antisocial behavior, the more the antisocial behavior increases.
"IQs of children ages 2 to 4 who were not spanked were 5 points higher four years later than the IQs of those who were spanked" (Science Daily, Research Shows Children Who Are Spanked Have Lower IQs).
"How to control one's angry impulses is one of the things you are trying to teach your children. Spanking sabotages this teaching. Spanking guidelines usually give the warning to never spank in anger. If this guideline were to be faithfully observed 99 percent of spanking wouldn't occur, because once the parent has calmed down he or she can come up with a more appropriate method of correction."--Dr. Sears
Resource Link: Aha Parenting